History. After the first settlements by Umbrian populations, Perugia was colonized by the Etruscans (VI-V century B. C.), becoming one of the twelve cities of the confederation. With the Battle of Sentino (295 B.C.), Perugia became part of the Roman orbit; following the social war (1st century B.C. ) was integrated with Rome, with the concession in 89 B. C. of citizenship. It was the scene of the civil war between Antonio and Ottaviano Augusto and was set on fire in 41 BC. during Bellum Perusinum. Perugia was later rebuilt by Augustus, who became emperor; in his honor the city took the name of Augusta Perusia. In the early Middle Ages it was long under the rule of the Byzantines, interrupted only by the brief occupation of the Goths (547) and by that, lasting a few decades, of the Lombards. Established in free common at the beginning of the eleventh century, Perugia exercised an expansionist policy at the expense of neighboring cities, the cause of continuous wars, often fought with papal support, which dragged on until the fourteenth century. It is in this period of expansion that the houses of the richest nobles and bourgeois began to equip themselves with towers, earning the city the name of Turrena.